On the Scientific Implications of Vertical Causality

Wolfgang Smith Following Galileo, Descartes and Newton, Western civilization succumbed to the spell of what I have termed horizontal  causation. From the publication of Newton’s Principia, in 1687, to the discovery of quantum physics in the early twentieth century, scientists assumed without question that, at bottom, the universe constitutes but a gigantic “clockwork,” in which … Continue reading On the Scientific Implications of Vertical Causality